INTRODUCTION the period after-independence of the countries, mainly Latin American, was marked by the submission of the popular masses to the domain of the elite criolla and much violence in the impasses politicians. The absence of one to be able institutionalized politician allows the sprouting of the caudilhos, local leaders who had functioned as spokesman of the ruling class (latifundium) above of the laws or institutions. The caudilhismo can be understood as one ' ' capitalism ruralizado' '. Pseudo-popular leadership in a phase of many local conflicts and still embryonic national states. It reflects the fragility of the institutions, the dependence of the submitted agricultural masses to the large state, beyond the precarious development of the productive forces. It is in this period that the countries of America go to confide for the modern world. The revolution of the marine transports makes with that America if converted into an important source of basic products the industrialized world.
From 1880 the process arrived at the apex of domination of the regional oligarchies, ending the domain of the caudilhos. Initiating the process of reconstruction of the State and national unification. However, this process was sufficiently slow and difficult, with considerable differences in each one of the cases. The constitution of National States starts to be condition necessary politics to the integration of America to an emergent capitalist market as supplying of substance cousin. This insertion in the market and the economic organization of the continent, directed to a external dynamic center, had as required brought a period of sped up modernization, also with the participation of the foreign capital, interested that this process of implemented. America entered in the period of the true birth of its ideas; now it was the moment of it to forge its face, to heal its wounds and to long for a really independent future. So that these objectives were reached, the Liberal Reforms happen.