The industrial revolution, occurred in England in the second half of century XVII, for some historians it was the beginning of the capitalism and the end of the feudalismo. It was also a process where the technological development lode to substitute the domestic way of production. The first consequences of the industrial revolution had been to the migration of the campesina population for the city provoking of this form the increase of the urban population, thus generating the urban development. This displacement of great masses of agricultural workers and without professional qualification made with that many were in needy conditions of work and submitting it great working days. The craftsmen who before dictated its rhythm of work, now were obliged to submit themselves discipline it manufacture of them.

They had also passed to suffer to competition from women and children. In the textile industry of the cotton, the women formed half of the diligent mass more than. Children started to work to the 6 years of age. She did not have guarantee against accident nor indemnities. In consequence the economic power, social and politician of the great entrepreneurs had been fortified, who paid to basses wages for the work force. Mechanization became the more efficient methods of production with the application of innovations techniques in the field of the industry and with the discovery of an innovative power plant produced for the vapor.

The products had passed to be produced more quickly, selling at a loss the price and stimulating the consumption. On the other hand, it also increased the number of unemployeds. The machines had been substituting, to the few, the man power human being. An enormous expansion of the commerce also occurred that was favored by the improvement of the routes of transports. The application of new inventions of ways of terrestrial and maritime transports the more distant markets had influenced the access each time. Thus generating a magnifying of the dimension of the foreign markets, folloied of a new division of the work.

National States

INTRODUCTION the period after-independence of the countries, mainly Latin American, was marked by the submission of the popular masses to the domain of the elite criolla and much violence in the impasses politicians. The absence of one to be able institutionalized politician allows the sprouting of the caudilhos, local leaders who had functioned as spokesman of the ruling class (latifundium) above of the laws or institutions. The caudilhismo can be understood as one ' ' capitalism ruralizado' '. Pseudo-popular leadership in a phase of many local conflicts and still embryonic national states. It reflects the fragility of the institutions, the dependence of the submitted agricultural masses to the large state, beyond the precarious development of the productive forces. It is in this period that the countries of America go to confide for the modern world. The revolution of the marine transports makes with that America if converted into an important source of basic products the industrialized world.

From 1880 the process arrived at the apex of domination of the regional oligarchies, ending the domain of the caudilhos. Initiating the process of reconstruction of the State and national unification. However, this process was sufficiently slow and difficult, with considerable differences in each one of the cases. The constitution of National States starts to be condition necessary politics to the integration of America to an emergent capitalist market as supplying of substance cousin. This insertion in the market and the economic organization of the continent, directed to a external dynamic center, had as required brought a period of sped up modernization, also with the participation of the foreign capital, interested that this process of implemented. America entered in the period of the true birth of its ideas; now it was the moment of it to forge its face, to heal its wounds and to long for a really independent future. So that these objectives were reached, the Liberal Reforms happen.

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